Mervyn S Jaswon: Urine collection methods and dipstick testing in non-toilet-trained children (Pediatr Nephrol .)

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Urinary tract infection is a commonly occurring paediatric infection associated with significant morbidity. Diagnosis is challenging as symptoms are non-specific and definitive diagnosis requires an uncontaminated urine sample to be obtained. Common techniques for sampling in non-toilet-trained children include clean catch, bag, pad, in-out catheterisation and suprapubic aspiration. The pros and cons of each method are examined in detail in this review.